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Bihar gives India a Diwali Gift: An In-Depth Analysis of the Assembly Elections

The results of the Bihar Assembly elections are in, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has received quite a drubbing. BJP led alliance has won less than one third (58) of the total seats (243).  Mr. Modi and his handpicked party chief Mr. Amit Shah in their infinite wisdom had made the election all about Mr. Modi. BJP had no  candidate for the chief minister’s post and they had also benched popular Bihari politicians from the BJP from active campaigning while BJP’s opposition coalesced into one group.

Fresh elections became necessary because the incumbent chief minister Mr. Nitish Kumar’s decided to withdraw from the coalition with BJP — he could not stomach Mr Modi as the candidate for PM. Nitish Kumar knew that he could not win the fight alone so he formed an alliance with Lalu Prasad Yadav and the Congress. Lalu as Mr. Prasad is affectionately known took the fight to Modi and his chamchas (rough translation: cronies). Yes, Lalu is  no saint and has a checkered past and few fans in the Indian English language media but he is a fighter and gave as good as he got. His Twitter feed is a hoot. He also had a home field advantage and rhetorically he can run rings around Mr. Modi in Hindi, which is not Mr. Modi’s first language.

Another inexplicable BJP campaign strategy was to berate Biharis and Bihar. If there is  one thing Indians can’t stand is a person from another state coming and giving them lectures and telling them to their face that they are stupid. The Bihari vs. Bahari (outsider) issue got lots of traction. This is BJP’s second loss in the Hindi heartland. BJP stalwarts from the Atal Bihari Vajpayee cabinet like Mr. Arun Shourie and Yashwant Sinha have been among the biggest critics of these tactics.

Mr. Modi was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India just last year. His party won an outright majority to the lower House of the Indian Parliament. This was the first time in almost thirty years that any party had managed this feat. Mr. Modi ran on an agenda of economic reform and job growth.  BJP also won state assembly elections in Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Haryana shortly after. So why did it all go south for Mr. Modi in such a short time?

The Backdrop to the Recent Elections

Was this drubbing inevitable and how does one explain this in light of the Modi wave of 2014? The answer is simple, the mandate was for economic development, more jobs better infrastructure etc not to enact Sangh hobby horses like banning beef consumption. However, instead of focusing on an agenda of economic development, BJP governments at the state level started enacting bans against consumption and sale of beef. These bans have given a license to bullies to harass those whose livelihood depends on beef. The lynching of a Muslim man in Dadri, Uttar Pradesh is the result same phenomena carried to its logical horrific end.

Then there was the assassination of Prof. M. M. Kalburgi in Karnataka, latest in the string of politically motivated assassinations of the outspoken critics of the version of Hinduism the Sangh champions. The modus operandi of the so called protectors of Hinduism is pretty simple. They try to silence the people who criticize them by calling them names and kill those who won’t be silenced. What do Modi and the BJP have to do with all this?

I blame them for enabling the ugliness and the prejudices that already exists to come to fore and be expressed without fear of any repercussions in  the public square. Just last week BJP spokesperson said this about the beloved and the most popular Indian actor of his generation, Shahrukh Khan

Shah Rukh Khan may live in India but his heart belongs to Pakistan. Although, his films make millions here but he dares call India intolerant.

He then went on to call him a traitor.  All this abuse because Shahrukh Khan added his voice to the chorus of other creative professionals who had expressed concern about the growing intolerance to opposing view points in Modi’s India. However, none else got called a traitor other than Shahrukh.

Amit Shah the head of the BJP had this to say at an election rally in Bihar, said that if his party lost in Bihar,

crackers will be burst in Pakistan.

The toxic ideology of Hindutva and divisive tactics give cover to the reactionaries who perpetrate acts like the assassinating Prof. Kalburgi and give rise to a chilling atmosphere meant to silence the critics of their radical agenda. Many eminent writers were dismayed by this trend that they started returning their Sahitya Akademi (Indian Academy of Arts and Letters) awards to register their protest against what they saw as a climate of rising intolerance. Prof. Kalburgi was a recipient of the prestigious award and the academy was silent about his death for weeks. Many other artists and scientists have also followed suit. So far 36 writers and poets have returned their awards.

The Long View

The only way a country as diverse as India can survive and thrive, is to live and let live.  India is not a monolith and never has been. India has tremendous linguistic (more than 20 major languages spoken) diversity and it has been home to almost every religion practiced in the world. Not just Hinduism and Islam but also Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism, not to mention Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Also,  there is a lot of regional variation as to how Hinduism is practiced in India. It bears little resemblance to the Hindutva preached by the Sanghis (denizens of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh or the National Volunteer Corps). Narendra Modi has deep roots in the RSS, he was an RSS pracharak (pracharak: propagandist/evangelist).

The roots of the Hindutva can be traced to back to the days of the British rule. India’s diversity was seen by many as the one of the main reasons why a handful of British could rule a vast subcontinent.  According to this school of thought, the British gained a foothold in India exploiting the differences that already existed.

Indian nationalists in the British era could be broadly divided into two groups,  one that celebrated the diversity as a strength not a weakness, while the other that thought of it as a weakness to be overcome. This group blamed all of India’s erst while troubles on the other and idolized a distant past when their community held the sway. The Congress and India took the first route while the Muslim League took the second, as their respective paths to independence. The ideology of Hindutva which the Sangh subscribes to, is a mirror image of the Muslim League’s ideology.

The Hindutva movement has  more in common with the fascist movements of the early 20th century in Europe rather than ancient India. Starting with their uniform of brown pants, right down to their salute. If you don’t believe me you can read the Sangh’s founding fathers and make up your own mind. The Sangh may don the mantle of the protector of all Hindus, but it is little more than a fascist cult where indoctrination begins early. These self appointed soldiers of Hinduism who presume to speak for all Hindus, take basic tenets that most (but not all) Hindus abide by and then use them as a wedge issue to create division and hatred. Take the issue in the news, consumption of beef. While it is true that many  Hindus don’t eat beef, most don’t care if someone else does. The Sangh’s vision for India is narrow and poorly imagined. They want homogeneity  and have little appreciation of the mosaic that is India. There is more to India than the Sangh’s mantra of, Hindu good and Muslim bad. India’s rich legacy belongs to all Indians, not just these self proclaimed and self righteous appropriators.

So when BJP got its first outright majority at the center it was not surprising that Modi did not rein in the crazies in the party.  In Sangh circles their thinking is not crazy at all but  mainstream. That’s why the election in Bihar was so important because it is going to be extremely difficult for the BJP and RSS brass to dismiss all of Bihar as liberals, pseudo-secularists, Marxists or Pakistan lovers or whatever epithet du jour the Sangh uses to bully those who don’t agree with their outlook.

The Finale

The voters in Bihar have rejected the demagoguery  and for that I am thankful. It’s also a reminder to the Gujarati combine of Modi and Shah that rest of India is not as receptive as their home state of Gujarat to the cause of militant vegetarianism and the paranoid, Muslim baiting version of Hinduism. The mandate Mr. Modi received last year was for economic change, not a green signal to make India a Hindu theocracy based on the tenets cooked up by the Sangh.

This tale has a happy ending. The Modi-Shah combine lost Bihar and the voters of one of India’s poorest states took on the Narakasura* of religious bigotry and won.

Happy Diwali!

*Yesterday was the first day of Diwali, also known as Naraka Chaturdashi, which celebrates Krishna’s victory over the rakshas (demon) Narakasura.


Happy Diwali

Kandeel  (source: Wikipedia)

Diwali is a time for new beginnings, a reboot if you will, before winter finally arrives. It celebrated like most winter festivities, with lots of illumination for your home and lots of calorific  but tasty foods for your body.  Diwali is among the many festivals celebrated just around the time  when  we all need something bright and cheerful to take our attention off the onset of a long and dreary winter.

Diwali is also a time of new beginnings, time to start new ventures and wear new clothes.  To mark the occasion, I am wearing my new sweater.  I will also be making karanjis (turnovers with a coconut filling) and chivda (trail mix with nuts and other crunchy stuff), later this evening and putting up Christmas lights in my windows, and may be carving a Jack’ O Lantern or two, in place of a kandeel (paper lantern). 

Diwali is celebrated over several days and the festivities start on the fourteenth day of the month of Kartik, in the Hindu lunar calendar. Besides the new clothes,  another highlight entails  exchange of gifts  of  snacks especially made for Diwali. How will you be celebrating the  Festival of Lights?

Karanjis, Turnovers with Coconut Filling

Ring in the end of the year with a sweet treat. These little flaky baked empanada look-alikes are filled with a sweet coconutty goodness. My mother’s karanjis are my favorite sweet Diwali treat. Although, Diwali celebrations are long since over it is never too late to make karanjis.

Now for the recipe, my mother doesn’t believe in writing down her recipes and even when she does write down her recipes her instructions are extremely vague as she does not use measuring cups or spoons but cooks by instinct. So it is a challenge to recreate her recipes. This is my attempt at reverse engineering her recipe for karanjis.  After several attempts spread over many years, I think I have finally nailed it this year. This is not the traditional recipe. I have made many changes to speed up things and lighten calorie content but the end result is just as delicious. Even so, this is not the easiest or the quickest or the lightest recipe in the world but it is well worth the effort. I make the dough at least a day before and keep it in the fridge. You can also make the filling ahead of time, up to a week before is fine too. So you can break up the process over several days. Karanjis are meant to be eaten as snacks like cookies, although they make a great after dinner dessert with some coffee.



The Dough

My mother’s recipe for the dough was very similar to the classic puff pastry dough recipe, although she used shortening instead of butter. Until this year I was too timid to make the dough from scratch, so I have experimented with store brought puff pastry dough and pie dough. This year I decided to make the dough myself and it was a modified pie dough recipe. The recipe was inspired by America’s Test Kitchen’s pie dough recipe, but uses less butter.

Pie-Dough Recipe (makes 24 karanjis)

2 cups unbleached sifted all-purpose flour

1 stick of butter (kept in the freezer for a few hours before making the dough)

2 tablespoons vodka

4 tablespoons ice-cold water

2 teaspoons sugar

1 teaspoon salt

First cut the stick of butter into small pieces; then add all the ingredients to my food processor. Slowly add the water and then the vodka till the dough comes together. Wrap it in plastic wrap till you are ready to work with it.


It’s the filling that makes these special. The original recipe starts with fresh coconut. Processing fresh coconut is not an easy task so I usually rehydrate unsweetened coconut flakes, which you can usually find at either an Indian grocery store or a natural foods store. You can also use fresh grated coconut in the freezer case if available. Under any circumstances do not use the overly sweetened coconut flakes from the baking aisle. To add sweetness to the coconut flakes you will need unrefined raw cane sugar chunks called jaggery. These chunks are what make the filling unique. You can find them in your Indian grocery store. I have substituted jaggery with a mix of maple syrup and honey and that was quite good, a couple of years ago when I could not find jaggery. You also need fresh nutmeg, slivered almonds, golden raisins and cardamoms.

Recipe for the Filling (makes 48 karanjis)

8 oz. dried coconut flakes

1 pound of jaggery

1 cup golden raisins

1 cup slivered almonds

2 cups hot boiling water

4 cardamom pods

2 teaspoons canola oil

Pinch of salt

½ cup water at room temperature

1. Add water to the dried coconut flakes, set aside for a couple of hours to reconstitute the coconut flakes.

2. Break the lump of jaggery into smaller lumps using a chef’s knife and then pulse them in a food processor.

3. Grate the nutmeg, remove the cardamom from the pods and process in a mortar and pestle or a clean coffee grinder that you only use for spices.

4. Use a heavy bottomed skillet or saucepan for this step.

5. Add the oil to the pan.

6. Add the processed jaggery and the reconstituted flakes sprinkle some water, mix well.

7. Add raisins and the slivered almonds.

8. Add nutmeg and powdered cardamom.

9. Add a pinch of salt.

10. Cook until the coconut mixture attains a light golden brown color, this will take about half an hour to 40 min. This step requires a lot of patience; you can sprinkle some water or add a little melted butter to prevent sticking and the mixture catching at the bottom.


You can either make little empanadas; this is the way karanjis are shaped traditionally. Or you can make tiny pies or tartlets, using a mini muffin pan. You will need to adjust your baking time accordingly. To make the empanada shape, roll out tiny circles of about 2 to 3 inches in diameter. This will support a tablespoon of the filling. The recipe for the pie dough included above makes 24 karanjis.

1. Preheat the oven to 450F

2. Roll out 24 discs and add a tablespoon of filling to the bottom half of the disc. Fold the top half over the bottom half. Repeat with all 24 discs. Crimp the edges with the back of a fork

3. Arrange on a cookie sheet, don’t overcrowd.

4. Bake between 12 and 18 minutes, till the crust is crisp and golden brown.

5. Cool on a cooling rack.

6. Store in a container with tight fitting lid. Karanjis will keep at room temperature for at least a couple of weeks, if they are not long gone before then.

I made 24 karanjis for Diwali and another batch of 24 for Christmas, the coconut filling will keep for a month in your fridge.